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    Question: Mikhail Gorbachev was Russia’s first elected president.
    Answer: Boris Yeltsin was the first popularly elected leader of Russia. He served as president of the country from 1990 to 1999. He died in 2007.
    Question: Nikita Khrushchev was a leader of the Soviet Union.
    Answer: The premier of the Soviet Union from 1958 to 1964 was Nikita Khrushchev. He pursued a policy of “peaceful coexistence” with the West.
    Question: The last Russian tsar ruled until 1945.
    Answer: The last Russian tsar, Nicholas II, was deposed in 1917. Russia was a communist nation until 1991, when it adopted a presidential system.
    Question: The grand duchess Anastasia was the only member of Nicholas II’s immediate family to avoid execution by the Bolsheviks.
    Answer: Although numerous women made claims to Anastasia’s identity—and to the Romanov fortune that was held in Swiss banks—none could provide compelling evidence that she was the lost duchess.
    Question: St. Petersburg, Russia, is older than New York City.
    Answer: St. Petersburg was founded in 1703. New York City was founded in 1626.
    Question: Russia defeated Japan in the Russo-Japanese War.
    Answer: The Russo-Japanese War ended in 1905 with a Japanese victory after Russia unsuccessfully tried to expand its power in East Asia.
    Question: The Soviet Union was created after the Russian Revolution.
    Answer: The Bolshevik, or Communist, leaders of the Russian Revolution established the Soviet Union in 1917. It lasted until 1991.
    Question: Vladimir Putin was the last tsar of Russia.
    Answer: Vladimir Putin was a president of Russia, not a tsar. In addition, he served as his country’s prime minister.
    Ivan IV. Woodcut of Ivan the Terrible, Tsar of Russia, c16th century. Ruler of Russia as grand duke (1533-47) and czar (1547-84). aka Ivan Vasilevish, Ivan Vasilyevich, Ivan Grozny

    Exploring Russia: Fact or Fiction?

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