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    Philosophy & Religion

    Humans have long pondered not only how we came to be, but also why we came to be. The earliest Greek philosophers focused their attention upon the origin and nature of the physical world; later philosophers have theorized about the nature of knowledge, truth, good and evil, love, friendship, and much more. Thus, philosophy involves a methodical assessment of any and all aspects of human existence and experience. The realms of philosophy and religion have sometimes intersected in conducting inquiries such as these. As with philosophy, the study of religion underscores how humankind has long speculated about its origins. The possibility of a higher being (or beings) to which livings things owe their existence has long captived human thought. Many religions also offer their own views on the nature of good and evil, and they may prescribe guidelines and judgment on different kinds of human behavior.
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    Featured content, May 22, 2020

    Celebrating Ramadan
    The Islamic holy month of Ramadan is a time for Muslims around the world to renew their focus on spiritual life.
    Spotlight / Philosophy & Religion
    Prayer beads on Quran or Koran written in Arabic Islam's sacred and liturgical language. text, words, Ramadan
    Who Wrote the King James Bible?
    The King James Version is probably the most well-known version of “The Good Book,” but who exactly wrote it?
    Demystified / Philosophy & Religion
    King James Version (KJV). Holy Bible Giant Print References Concordance Red Letter. King James Version (KJV) King James Bible Holy Bible Antique Christianity Church Gospel old book Religion religious Spirituality Homepage blog 2011 arts and entertainment
    Brain Games: 8 Philosophical Puzzles and Paradoxes
    Dust off your thinking cap.
    List / Philosophy & Religion
    Casino. Gambling. Slots. Slot machine. Luck. Rich. Neon. Hit the Jackpot neon sign lights up casino window.
    The Social Contract and Philosophy
    Why should the state exist, and how much power should it have? The social contract may provide the answer.
    Companion / Philosophy & Religion
    John Locke (1632-1704) English philosopher, regarded as the father of British empiricism author of Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690). His political philosophy exerted considerable influence on the American revolution and French revolution.
    Ethics
    Ethics, the discipline concerned with what is morally good and bad and morally right and wrong. The term is also applied…
    Encyclopedia / Philosophy & Religion
    Code of Hammurabi
    Humanism
    Humanism, system of education and mode of inquiry that originated in northern Italy during the 13th and 14th centuries and…
    Encyclopedia / Philosophy & Religion
    Cicero, Marcus Tullius
    Metaphysics
    Metaphysics, branch of philosophy whose topics in antiquity and the Middle Ages were the first causes of things and the nature…
    Encyclopedia / Philosophy & Religion
    Aristotle
    Historiography
    Historiography, the writing of history, especially the writing of history based on the critical examination of sources, the…
    Encyclopedia / Philosophy & Religion
    Oracle bone inscriptions

    Philosophy & Religion Quizzes

    Statue of Confucius in Beijing, China
    Confucianism
    How much do you know about the teachings of Confucius? Test your knowledge with this quiz.
    Saint Thomas Aquinas. Apotheosis of St. Thomas Aquinas, altarpiece by Francesco Traini, 1363; in Santa Caterina, Pisa, Italy. St. Thomas Aquinas (c1225-1274) Italian philosopher and theologian. Dominican order of monks (black friars).
    Saints
    We can’t promise you a sainthood, but improve your saintly knowledge with this quiz.
    Diwali holiday lamps or candles, India.  (Indian holiday, oil lamp, flame,  candle, fire)
    Hinduism
    Hinduism is one of the most popular religions on Earth. How much do you know about its philosophy, belief, and ritual? Test…
    indonesia bee country map
    Islam
    How much do you know about the Prophet Muhammad? How about holy cities? Test your knowledge of Islam with this quiz.
    Plant. Flower. Nymphaea. Water lily. Lotus. Aquatic plant. Close-up of three pink water lilies.
    Plants with Religious Meaning
    Test your knowledge of sacred plants with this quiz.
    Christmas presents under the tree, gifts.
    Celebrating Christmas Quiz
    How much do you know about Christmas? Take this quiz to test your knowledge.
    Hypatia. Hypatia (b. c355-415) Egyptian Neoplatonist philosopher who was the first notable woman in mathematics. She was murdered by followers of Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria.
    Odd Facts About Philosophers
    Who says philosophers don’t lead interesting lives? Test your knowledge of a few things you probably didn’t learn in Philosophy…
    Pages of the Qur'an also spelled Quran and Koran the sacred scripture of Islam. Muslim holy book Arabic religion
    The Qur?ān
    How much do you know about Islam’s holy book?
    Anastasius II (died 498) pope from 496 after a 16th century illustration
    Pope Quiz
    Think you know everything about the office of the Supreme Pontiff? Test your knowledge with this quiz.
    Agathon (centre) greeting guests in Plato's Symposium, oil on canvas by Anselm Feuerbach, 1869; in the Staatliche Kunsthalle, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Philosophy 101
    What is existentialism? Who was Socrates? What is idealism? Test your knowledge of these topics and more with this Philosophy…
    Image Gallery
    Philosophy & Religion
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    Philosophy & Religion Subcategories

    Thor Ancient Religions & Mythology
    What did our ancestors believe in? How did they view the possibility of an afterlife? How did their beliefs influence modern religion and spirituality? Explore these questions and more.
    Articles
    Auguste Comte Ethical Issues
    What moral precepts guide us through tricky situations that may arise in relation to friendships, family, communities, and the work environment? Right and wrong are not always defined in the same way across different cultures.
    Articles
    Forensic anthropologist examining a human skull found in a mass grave in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2005. Humanities
    The study of humankind with an appreciation of human values and of the unique ability of the human spirit to express itself.
    Articles
    Immanuel Kant Philosophers
    Here you'll find the thinkers and theorists who have expressed their own ideas about such topics as the nature of humankind's relationship with the metaphysical world, the definitions of truth and knowledge, and the conditions of existence. From ancient Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle to later notable philosophers such as René Descartes and Immanuel Kant, philosophy's great thinkers have approached sensitive ethical and existential issues from a variety of different angles. Their ideas have influenced the way we look at our world and the way we relate to one another as human beings.
    Articles
    Laozi Philosophical Issues
    Are you ready to delve into the myriad possible answers to such complex questions as "What makes an action virtuous?" or "What is the nature of consciousness?" Do you embrace weighty topics such as the relative merits of empiricism and rationalism? An inquisitive spirit is all but a prerequisite for many of the topics listed here, which deal with the different approaches to and ideas about the big questions of life.
    Articles
    reclining Buddha Religious Beliefs
    Our religious beliefs, such as they are, can affect our lifestyle, our perceptions, and the manner in which we relate to fellow human beings. Is there a higher power (or powers) that governs the universe and judges all of us? Can committing a mortal sin mean the death of a soul, or is there a chance for forgiveness? The answers to such questions differ widely across different religions.
    Articles
    Pope Gregory VII, after his expulsion from Rome, laying a ban of excommunication on the clergy “together with the raging king” (Henry IV of Germany), drawing from the 12th-century chronicle of Otto of Freising; in the library of the University of Jena, Germany. Religious Personages & Scholars
    This general category includes a selection of more specific topics.
    Articles
    subcategory placeholder Religious Places
    Human beings tend to relate to their religious beliefs through symbolism. Religious and sacred places—common destinations for pilgrims—represent a physical connection that helps believers express their devotion.
    Articles
    Igor Stravinsky Sacred Art & Music
    This general category includes a selection of more specific topics.
    Articles
    Krishna; Arjuna Scriptures
    Sacred scriptures of all religions, viewed as the word of God or inspired by God, have influenced the moral and ethical standards of countries, peoples, and religious groups. Their interpretation has always been a subject of discussion and, at times, controversy.
    Articles
    Christ as Ruler, with the Apostles and Evangelists (represented by the beasts). The female figures are believed to be either Santa Pudenziana and Santa Praxedes or symbols of the Jewish and Gentile churches. Mosaic in the apse of Santa Pudenziana, Rome, AD 401–417. Spirituality
    This general category includes a selection of more specific topics.
    Articles
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